Keywords: Graphics, Rendering, Lighting, Lightmap


Indirect Lighting

What Is Direct and Indirect Lighting?

Next-gen Lighting

Recalibrating Our Limits: Lighting on ‘Ratchet and Clank: Rift Apart’ (Recommended)

Light Mapping


A lightmap is a data structure used in lightmapping, a form of surface caching in which the brightness of surfaces in a virtual scene is pre-calculated and stored in texture maps for later use. Lightmaps are most commonly applied to static objects in applications that use real-time 3D computer graphics, such as video games, in order to provide lighting effects such as global illumination at a relatively low computational cost.

Quoted from: Lightmap




Tutorial 15 : Lightmaps


Light Mapping - Theory and Implementation

Probe-based Lighting


Light Probe Image Gallery

How is a light probe different than an environmental cube map?


Slow-light Faraday effect: an atomic probe with gigahertz bandwidth.

Light-up probe based on AIEgens: dual signal turn-on for caspase cascade activation monitoring

Real-Time Global Illumination using Precomputed Light Field Probes

Scaling Probe-Based Real-Time Dynamic Global Illumination for Production (Recommended)


Probe-Based Global Illumination


Experimentation framework for probe-based lighting

Tile Based Lighting


Optimizing tile-based light culling

Image Based Lighting


Image-based rendering (IBR) is the general term for using images to improve scene rendering time and complexity. The main characteristic of IBR is the use of captured or previously rendered images to reduce the time to render an image by avoiding or reducing the geometric complexity of the rendered scene.

Image-based lighting


Image-Based Lighting


Image Based Lighting

Image Based Lighting


Shader Fundamentals - Image Based Lighting

Spherical Harmonic Lighting


Spherical harmonic lighting


Spherical Harmonic Lighting: The Gritty Details

Normal Mapping

Why are normal maps blue

Only tangent space normal maps are primarily blue. This is because the colour blue represents a normal of (0,0,1) which would be an unchanged normal when the triangle lies in the plane x and y, i.e. perpendicular to the surface.

Normal vectors in a normal map are expressed in tangent space where normals always point roughly in the positive z direction (means that vector N is close to 1, T and B are close to 0).


Why are normal maps blue and purple in color?

凡是过往,皆为序章。(What's past is prologue) -威廉·莎士比亚《暴风雨》